(Please note: these are only a few reviews. There are 286 reviews in all. Following the excerpts you will find the table of contents with a complete list of the art and artists covered in the book ).
A HISTORY OF QUAKER ART (OPENING SECTION)
The Religious Society of Friends condemned art for most of its history.
In the Founding Period of Friends, George Fox was the first Quaker to speak against art. In 1649, according to his journal entry, he lectured people at a fair about music. He felt music promoted self-importance and passion or “vanity”, and he wanted to be humble and submissive to the Spirit of God. Fox had some reason to feel this way. Much of the art of the time was frivolous, if not vicious. Typical were the Restoration plays, which glorified adultery and promiscuity.
Richard Farnsworth followed in 1653, writing a tract against music called The General Good to All People. In 1658 Humphrey Smith wrote a polemic against art called “To Musicioners, to the Harpers, the Minstrels, the Singers, the Dancers, the Persecutors: from one who loved Dancing and Musick as his Life”. Fox also wrote against music in 1659 in his To the Parliament of England, Fifty-nine Particulars, etc., taking a political stand this time.
In 1667 Solomon Eccles wrote another attack against music called The Music Lector. He believed that human or “creaturely” efforts were suspect and only “spiritual” efforts were acceptable, and he firmly linked art with the former. An enormously talented musician, he reviled his art.
In 1668, in No Cross, No Crown, William Penn extended the rejection to many forms of art: poems, novels, plays, dance and music. To the usual objections he added one based on simplicity. The Quaker aim was not only a moral simplicity but an outward simplicity, too. The elaborate Baroque art of the day held no appeal in this regard.
In 1676, Robert Barclay in his An Apology for the True Christian Divinity, and specifically in his infamous Preposition XV, proscribed most art and summarized much of the objections that had been stated before, giving theological justification through the use of the scriptures.
Another negative was that few artists joined the Religious Society of Friends in its early days. Most Quakers were yeoman farmers with a smattering of the middle class and an occasional nobleman, all of whom knew little about art. Additionally, much of the art of those times was sponsored by the Church of England or Rome. Since those churches were viewed as corrupt, their art (and all other art) was rejected.
There was also a feeling that Friends were out to revive Christianity, and all efforts should be focused on this mission.
Oddly, however, while Friends condemned art, at the same time some practiced it.
The first Quaker art was poetry. It came in 1659 with two poems composed by a pair of the Valiant Sixty, Edward Burrough and Thomas Stubbs. A good-sized group of Quaker poets emerged, among them some famous names: Margaret Fell, Thomas Story, Thomas Ellwood, John Perrot, Thomas Taylor and even William Penn. The poetry was much like the Puritan and Restoration verse of the day but with a distinctly Quaker feel to it.
Stephen Crisp wrote an allegory. Egbert van Heemskerk painted an early picture of a Meeting for Worship, and a few Quaker portraits existed. A little singing was noted. Some beautiful prose to aid the spread of Quakerism was written. But the pickings were pretty scanty. Friends mostly channeled the aesthetic impulse into a reverence for the Bible. They also focused this into their journal writing.
In 1700 Margaret Fell wrote against the repression of art that had risen among Friends, calling it “a silly poor gospel”. She was ignored, though, and that closed out the Founding Period.
FOUNDING PERIOD (A FEW SELECTIONS)
Early Friends never allowed themselves to be painted. They regarded portraits as a temptation to pride and a form of idolatry. George Fox, in Doctrinals, specifically wrote against it.
Nevertheless, a few early portraits survive, largely done by non-Quakers. Most, however, are of doubtful authenticity.
In 1656, Quaker minister James Nayler was convicted of blasphemy by the English Parliament. A pamphlet, Ephraim Pagitt’s Heresiography, sixth edition, 1661, which describes the religious errors of sects like the Quakers, includes a portrait of him. A German pamphlet, Der Grosse Betrieger und Falsche Messias, Iacob Naylor, Konig der Quacker also came about this time. Two others, one allegedly by Rembrandt (1657) and one by Francis Place (c. 1665) exist. None are certain portraits, though they resemble written descriptions, with the exception of the one perhaps done by Rembrandt.
Willem Sewel, the first Quaker historian, allowed himself to painted in 1705. Gerhard Rademaker did his portrait for the magazine Boekzaal der Gerleerde Wereld. Sewel does not seem to have objected to this.
Around 1718 William Penn was sculpted by Silvanus Bevan, an early Quaker artist. This was a carved ivory medallion for Lord Cobham, from which Bevan made two or three busts. Bevan knew Penn, and several of Penn’s friends wrote about the carving’s accuracy. A number of portraits were copied from it. A crayon drawing allegedly by Francis Place was discovered in the late 1700’s. A young William Penn in armor, artist unknown, was found about 1820. In the mid-19th century a painting on glass as well as a portrait of Penn in old age was discovered, artists also anonymous. None of these last four closely resemble the Bevan sculpture.
George Fox appeared in a painting discovered in 1858, which was supposed to have been done by Sir Peter Lely, a contemporary. Two others, a young Fox by Gerard Honthorst (1799) and an engraving by Samuel Chinn (1838), have surfaced. Again, none are certain portraits, though with the exception of the Honthorst work, they resemble written descriptions, too.
Two portraits of John Lilburne, political writer and agitator, survive.Both depict him before his conversion to Quakerism. One dates from 1641 and was engraved by G. Glover; when Lilburne was jailed in the Tower of London, he had bars drawn across his face. The other depicts him at his 1649 trial. The artist is anonymous.
Early Friends displayed an ambivalent attitude toward music. They were on fire to worship authentically and when moved by the Spirit, they sang. George Fox recorded in his journal that when beaten by the jailer at Carlisle Gaol, he sang “in the power of the Lord”. In fact, when the jailer seized a fiddle and began to play, hoping to drown him out, Fox sang so movingly that the jailer was forced to stop.
Additionally, William Penn’s first wife, Gulielma, was known to have played her lute for the poet Milton.
A few early Friends sang hymns, psalms or Biblical songs. The Friends Meeting in the Kendal district of northwestern England customarily sang as a congregation; one of its leaders, Thomas Holme, was famous for his singing. Substitutes seemed to have existed, too. Some Meetings, as a Friend ministered, responded with what were called “soundings, sensible groanings and reverent singing”, much as one would hear in a Baptist church nowadays. When some Friends ministered, they added a rhythmic lilt to their words, which, the English called “intoning” or we Americans call the “sing-song”. (I have heard this used by older Friends even nowadays). Even Robert Barclay, who rejected most art in his Apology, indicated that music was “sweet and refreshing” when inspired by God.
And yet this same dedication to authenticity led most early Friends to reject singing hymns, psalms and Biblical songs; singing in congregations or choirs; and playing instruments. They felt singing hymns might not be spontaneous, and that singing the Psalms or Biblical songs marred the original intent with a foreign meter and rhythm. (Those few Friends who did sing sang without meter or rhythm and even this quickly disappeared). When people sang as a group in a congregation or choir, not all people might be moved by the Spirit. If people played instruments, it was ”artificial”, that is, produced by what persons had made, rather than by voices, which God had made.
Because much of the secular music of the age was licentious, Friends rejected it. Solomon Eccles, a tremendously talented musician who destroyed his instruments, symbolized this. He wrote A Musick Lector, a dialogue explaining his opposition. Fox witnessed against music at a fair. Humphrey Smith wrote “To the Musicioners….”, an attack on music.
In time, Friends ceased to sing or play music altogether. Condemnation of music was even written into the Discipline. A great error we would not correct until the present day.
Margaret Fell (1614-1702) was considered to be the mother of Quakerism. With the Valiant Sixty, she was one its leaders. Her home, Swarthmore, became a refuge for Friends.
Margaret Fell wrote an elegy called “A Few Lines Concerning Josiah Coale” about 1669. Coale was a young Friend, who travelled widely in England and America, converting many. He was, apparently, greatly loved. In 1668 he was martyred for preaching Quakerism. The elegy, or memorial, is 44 lines long and is in rhyming couplets. While it is not a great poem, it is a very good poem, and speaks with a distinctive voice, giving one an idea of how Fell may have sounded. Above all, her grief for Coale is evident.
It is fitting that Margaret Fell should have been among the first Quaker artists. It was she spoke against the suppression of art that wascoming in the second generation of Friends. She called it a “silly poor gospel”. Ultimately her warning would be forgotten, however.
The Religious Society of Friends would throw up the walls that would largely block out the light of art that God gave us, and for 200 years they would not come down.
(Some sources attribute the poem to William Penn. I place it with Fell, however, perhaps purely out of sentiment).
QUIETIST PERIOD (A FEW SELECTIONS)
Annie Oakley (1860-1926), born Phoebe Ann Moses, was one of the premier entertainers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. She hunted game and entered shooting contests as a child to help feed her desperately poor family. In 1876 she and her husband Frank Butler toured with vaudeville and circuses as sharpshooters. She joined Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show as “Miss Annie Oakley, the Peerless Wing Shot” in 1885. A small, reserved woman, she became idolized by the public and was the first famous woman sports figure in America.
Oakley grew up as a Friend, descended from a long line of Pennsylvania Quakers who had emigrated to Ohio. At first her mother forbade her to hunt because of the testimony against violence. Oakley attributed her belief in hard work, humility and honesty and her work for women’s economic rights and their role in sports to her Quakerism. Reflecting Friends long association with Indians, she befriended many of the Native Americans in Cody’s troop, including Sitting Bull, who dubbed her “Little Sure Shot”.
Oakley was a bundle of contradictions: born and raised in the Midwest, she symbolized the Wild West; working for women’s rights, she rejected feminism; and raised a Friend, she became famous for shooting guns. A curious figure.
Paul Cuffe (1759-1817) was a sea captain, merchant, shipbuilder and political reformer. Born in Massachusetts of a freed African slave and a Native American woman, he led an adventurous and far-ranging life: a whaler at the age of 14; a smuggler and ferryman during the American Revolution; and after the war, a whaler again but also a trader and fisherman. Along the way he was captured by pirates and imprisoned by the British. He grew rich gradually, owning a fleet of vessels that traded worldwide. Concerned about education, he established “Cuff’s School” near his home in Westport. His major project, however, was the Friendly Society, an effort to create commerce between the United States, England and Sierra Leone, thus undercutting the slave trade. He was also a major figure in the Back-to-Africa movement.
Cuffe began building boats as a child. During the war he and his brother built skiffs for smuggling and ferrying. After he became successful, he owned shipyards on Wesport’s Acoaxet River. He built the brigs Ranger, Hero, Alpha and Traveller (the last at 109 tons his largest) as well as several whalers. A silhouette of him includes one of his graceful, two-masted, square-rigged brigs lying between the Massachusetts and Sierra Leone shores.
Cuffe’s father had been owned, then manumitted by a Friend, and Paul had grown up near the Quaker communities of New Bedford and Nantucket Island. When he became a trader, he came into contact with Quaker merchants and abolitionists, who gave him financial support. In 1808 he joined Westport (MA) Meeting and he lived in Westport, a Quaker enclave, most of his life. Cuffe was a valued member of his Meeting, given travel minutes several times for his work with the Friendly Society and serving on many committees. He was also given travelling minutes by New England Yearly Meeting and served on its committees. He opposed the War of 1812 on the grounds of the Peace Testimony. In 1813 he was the largest contributor to and helped oversee the construction of the new Westport Meetinghouse. He was also called to work on the Boston Meetinghouse for New England Yearly Meeting. He is buried in the graveyard at Westport Meeting; his last words were “Let me pass quietly away”. Every five years his descendants at that Meeting gather there to celebrate his life.
Paul Cuffe’s shipbuilding was well within the Quaker craft tradition. For most of our history Friends rejected art. Crafts -Meetinghouses, clocks, quilts, etc. -were one of the few exceptions to this. Generally they were beautifully-made, Friends pouring into them the aesthetic impulses denied elsewhere.
Quakers- or people dressed up as Quakers -participated in the late 18th century Roman Carnivale. They were called “Quaccheri” and wore masks with small eyes and puffed-out cheeks; wigs with odd pig-tails; broadbrims; and dark, plain suits. When a “Quaker” would meet another “Quaker” in the street, they would hop up and down repeatedly and emit loud “brrs” at each other, this sometimes being taken up by as much as a hundred other “Quakers” nearby. (The Italian version of quaking?) While no one seems to know from where these characters originated, they appear to have been influenced by the “Buffo Caricati” or tasteless dandies of the Italian comic opera. Like the “Buffo Caricati”, the “Quaccheri” wore suits made of velvet or silk, their vests embroidered, and they carried large black rings without glass, like opera glasses, with which they peered at everyone. Johann von Goethe witnessed this phenomenon in 1788 and wrote about it in his Travels in Italy.
The Carnivale is an ancient European tradition that encourages people to drop their usual inhibitions once a year. Participants dress in costume, and drinking, music and revelry explode during the event. The Roman Carnivale dates back thousands of years to the Saturnalia Festivals and includes horse-racing as it was staged at the Coliseum.
So, Friends, when you rise to give ministry the next time, do not forget to carry your opera glasses, hop up and down and shout “brr”!
AN ALLEGED PORTRAIT OF JOHN WOOLMAN
An alleged portrait of John Woolman appeared in 1926 in the Rancocas edition of The Journal and Essays of John Woolman. The original drawing was in sepia with the British and Foreign Antislavery Society medal in the background. Robert Smith III (c. 1770-1851) of Burlington, New Jersey seems to have been the artist, for his work is similar to the drawing. Descended from a long line of New Jersey Quakers, Smith was a talented portraitist who produced a large body of sketches. He was the first editor of The Friend, one of the precursors to Friends Journal.
Amelia Mott Gummere, the Rancocas edition editor, stated that the portrait was found in Governor Samuel Pennypacker’s papers with the notation ‘John Woolman’ on the back. She added that Pennypacker had been known for his accuracy and that Smith had been a friend of Woolman.
Janet Payne Whitney in her biography John Woolman, American Quaker disputed the portrait’s authenticity, however. She pointed out that it was actually Pennypacker who had written ‘John Woolman’ on the back. She also reported that Smith’s grandfather had been the one who had known Woolman. Whitney suggested that Anthony Benezet may have been the subject. In any case, the silhouette of Uriah Woolman, John’s brother, does not seem to resemble the picture.
John Woolman (1720-1772) was, of course, the Mount Holly, New Jersey Friend famous for his antislavery work and for his journal.
The Richardson family represented three generations of Quaker silversmiths.
Francis (b. 1681) came from a wealthy family allied with the Philadelphia elite. He was probably apprenticed to a silversmith, per Penn’s laws, though this is not known for certain. As a child, he did know Phillip Synge, Jr., another silversmith, and he drew in the margins of his lesson books. By 1701 Francis was a well-known silversmith with a shop on Front Street, who also worked in gold. He was famous for fashioning silver shoe buckles for Letitia Penn, William’s daughter. Another pair of his shoe buckles made for the wedding slippers of Elizabeth Paschall rest now in the Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Joseph, Francis’ son, was considered to be the finest of the Richardson silversmiths. Among other pieces of his that survive are a coffeepot, sugar bowl, teapot and cream jug made as wedding gifts for Sara Shoemaker and Edward Preston in 1754. He was very active among Friends, including leadership in the “The Friendly Society for Promoting Peace with the Indians by Pacific Measures”. In 1757 he struck medals that were presented to ‘Friendly Indians’.
Joseph, Jr. and Nathaniel, Joseph’s sons, were respected silversmiths, as well. They were known for the ornaments they made for Native Americans. Joseph, Jr. also built furniture as well as doll’s furniture for his nieces. Both worked in gold, too.
Virginia Wire Cuteman, a Richardson descendant, was active in the 1950’s as the Director of Silversmithing at the Philadelphia Museum School of Industrial Art. Some of her pieces were displayed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. She was a member of Green Street (PA) Meeting.
Unrelated to the Richardsons, William Pascall was active about 1695. Richard Humphreys (c. 1785) was one of Philadelphia’s most prolific silversmiths. A buckle and a pair of cufflinks, both set with gems made of paste and owned by his wife Hannah, still survive.
A tip of the broadbrim to Estelle Simms Hewson for the above information about the Richardsons.
Quietist Friends of the 18th and 19th centuries condemned music. Besides wanting to worship authentically, among other concerns, they felt that music was a waste of time better spent in spiritual pursuits and also that it was a harmful influence on children. Epistles and Disciplines reflected this. Faith and Practices from Philadelphia Yearly Meeting in 1716 and London Yearly Meeting in 1846 were other examples. Thomas Clarkson in his Portraiture of Quakerism listed Friendly concerns about music. Stories were legion. David Fox determined that he must give up his cello; unable to burn, smash or sell it, he buried it in his garden. John Jones abandoned the triple Welsh harp, which he had spent ten years in learning. At Sidcot, a Quaker school, the master reprimanded a student for whistling, declaring “Whistling is next door to swearing!”
Fiddling was especially forbidden because it led to dancing. Even sacred music like oratorios, which became widely accepted and performed in the 1700’s, was disapproved of by the Religious Society of Friends. Ann Rickman was disowned in 1804 for sending her children to music lessons.
A few so-called gay Friends evaded the strictures. As a child, Elizabeth Fry studied piano and sang with her sisters. Joseph Fry, Elizabeth’s husband, attended concerts while traveling on the Continent as did the scientist James Dalton. Fry also went to “Music Meetings” at the homes of wealthy Friends and to the opera without wearing his plain clothes. Other Friends practiced in secret. Sally Wister sang, and Henry Drinker played the flute, while an anonymous Friend stole to the top of the Monument in London once a year to play his flute, where none could hear him. Another anonymous Friend noted, “Surely He who formed the ear and the heart would not have given these gifts and powers without some purpose for them….
And yet generations of Quakers lived their lives never hearing Handel, Bach or Mozart. Is it any wonder that Elizabeth Fry, who as an adult rejected music, would write, “I regret we as a Society so wholly gave up delighting the ear by sound”? But the day was coming when this great error would be corrected.
MODERN PERIOD (A FEW SELECTIONS)
James Turrell (b. 1943) is a leading American artist. His work focuses on light. Examples include Afrum- Proto, a projection cast into a room’s corner that seems to float in space; Amba, a rectangle cut into a wall that opens onto a room of misty light (and that appears to be a painting when first viewed); Second Meeting, a room minus the ceiling that frames the sky; and Roden Crater, an extinct volcano in Arizona that when completed will be filled with tunnels, viewing chambers and reflecting pools. (Roden Crater may be the largest piece of art in the world). Additionally, he has used light to make scenery and costumes for the operas “Aida” and “A Lyrical Opera to be Sung” as well as created The Sky Garden that can be best viewed when flying over it.
Turrell’s intent is perception itself: how do we experience light? He was inspired by John Cage’s pieces on silence, in which the listener is encouraged to listen for their own blood circulating, and wanted to do something similar with light. His experience as a pilot viewing the sky also influenced him. (Among other organizations, he flew U-2 planes for the Central Intelligence Agency). He also studied perceptual psychology at Pomona College; art theory and history at the University of California at Irvine; and received his graduate degree at Claremont.
Turrell has produced over 120 one-man shows and taken part in over 115 group exhibitions on virtually every continent. Among other museums, his work is in the collections of the Chicago Art Institute; the Guggenheim; the Museum of Modern Art; P.S. 1; and the Whitney. He has won numerous honors, including the Legion of Honor, a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship and a Guggenheim Fellowship. Several books (Three to Get Ready, Long Green, etc.) and many articles (Time, Newsweek, Artforum, New York Times, etc.) have been written about him. He appeared as the final artist in the BBC documentary, American Visions.
Turrell attends the Flagstaff (AZ) Meeting. He designed the Houston Meetinghouse, and Second Meeting reminds one of a Meetinghouse. His Lapsed Quakerware, co-created by Nicholas Mosse and influenced by Wedgewood, are ink-black pottery presented in austere cabinets; his Re-lapsed Quakerware consist of white pottery. Turrell was raised a Conservative Friend in California and grew up wearing the plain dress. Conservative Friends generally generally avoided art, at least in the past, feeling that it was a vain and creaturely pursuit, and therefore it is remarkable that an artist of his caliber should emerge from this background. His grandmother, however, did say to him, when they would worship at Villa Street Meeting in Pasadena, “Go inside and greet the Light”.
And, indeed the Inner Light inspires Turrell’s work. He noted that it was “the same way you go inside to greet the light in meditation”. He also commented that the Quaker influence on his work had to do with simplicity and plainness being virtues and not making graven images. He has worked for the American Friends Service Committee. In the 1960’s he performed alternative military service and also served time in prison for antiwar activities. (“I questioned authority until authority answered back”, he noted).
I was enthralled with Turrell’s art. This was particularly brought home when I walked into my darkened kitchen one night and discovered that the cover of a Japanese edition of one his books that he had kindly sent me glowed in the dark. How perfect that a Friend should work with Light!
THE ANGEL AND THE BADMAN
The movie was called The Angel and the Badman, a Republic Western made in 1948. Wayne portrays an outlaw named Quirt Evans, who is rehabilitated by the love of a Quaker maid, played by Gail Russell. (At the film’s conclusion it is implied he becomes a Friend, rather than shown). James Edward Grant wrote and directed
The Angel and the Badman. His other screenplay credits included The Sands of Iwo Jima, Donovan’s Reef, The Alamo, and The Barbarian and the Geisha. The Angel and the Badman was his first directorial effort. He was also a successful novelist. John Wayne produced the film.
Preposterous as this all may sound, it was actually a fairly good movie, if you can forget that Wayne plays the title role. The Friends and their beliefs are depicted in a sympathetic and understated manner.
(A tip of the broadbrim to Peter Theodore for reminding me about it).
Joan Baez (b. 1941) was brought up a Friend. When she was ten, her parents began attending Buffalo (NY) Meeting. Baez, though, participated in worship and First Day School only because she did not want to hurt her father’s feelings. She left the Religious Society of Friends as a young adult. And yet influence persisted. In her beautiful book Daybreak she wrote of Quaker influence at her Institute for Non-violence and of her friend, Friend Ira Sandperl. In later years, as she described in the book And a Voice to Sing with, she returned to worship with Friends in Carmel, California.
A quote from Daybreak:
“The point of nonviolence is to build a floor, a strong new floor, beneath which we can no longer sink….”
“How are you going to build this practical structure?” “From the ground up. By studying, learning about, experimenting with every possible alternative to violence on every level. By learning how to say no to the nation-state, no to war taxes, NO to the draft, NO to killing in general, YES to the brotherhood of man, by starting new institutions which are based on the assumption that murder in any form is ruled out, by making and keeping in touch with nonviolent contacts all over the world, by engaging ourselves at every chance in dialogue with people, groups, to try to begin to change the consensus that it’s OK to kill.”
The painting depicts Christina, a flying saint, perched in the rafters of a church while a priest below orders her to descend and another priest peeks out from behind a pillar. It is a picture of real intensity, yet great humor, presented in gorgeous colors.
Cynthia is a painter of historical figures. Persons portrayed include Christina the Astonishing; Hildegard of Bingen; Frederico Garcia Lorca; Fanny Mendelsohn; and Clara Schumann. Spiritual concerns are threaded throughout her work, manifested as explorations of religion, mental illness, genius and music. In style the paintings are reminiscent of Van Eyck. They are created by painting an image in egg tempera and applying over it many translucent layers of oil glaze, a process taking a year and a half to complete.
A prolific artist, Cynthia has also created the Eviction Paintings (Irish and Palestinian) as well as Poetry Boxes that sometimes contain erotic drawings and texts. She has carved or cut beautiful frames to enclose her paintings andoccasionally attached to them piano or organ keys inscribed with symbols and words on working springs.
Additionally, Cynthia has rebuilt organs and constructed intricate toys and toy pianos. She graduated from the Parsons School of Design and has exhibited her work all over the United States and Europe.
Raised in an agnostic family, Cynthia found herself interested in small religions and heretical movements. She was at first attracted to the theological puzzles offered by some of those faiths but was then drawn to the mysticism offered by others, such as the Quakers. Cynthia became a member of Fifteenth Street (NY) Meeting as well as the Fellowship of Quakers in the Arts. She was Clerk of the 2003 Artquake, the New York City Friends arts festival. Now she belongs to Strawberry Creek (CA) Meeting.
Cynthia is a richly gifted artist. She reveals the interior life of her subjects, pained, joyous, serene, with extraordinary skill. My favorite painting of hers, however, is Sion Organ, depicting a massive organ but with equally large baby wrens cupped in the platform below it as in a nest. Its strangeness, almost poignancy, is a hallmark of her work.
Sok-Hon Ham (1901-1989) was regarded by many as the Gandhi of Korea. Known and revered by Koreans as Teacher Ham, or the Albatross, whose characters in Korean also mean “god-fearing man”, he was at various times a history teacher, philosopher, poet, essayist, farmer and political activist. As an activist, he was beaten and jailed by Japanese and Russian occupation governments for his non-violent struggle for independence, and later imprisoned by South Korean governments for his equally non-violent work against corruption and dictatorship. Twice he was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Peace. He made a memorable appearance with his traditional white costume and silvery beard.
Sok-Hon’s poetry was collected in Beyond the Horizon, and he continued to compose his delicate, evocative verse throughout his life. His writings, which totaled twenty volumes, also included A Korean History from a Biblical Standpoint and The Albatross, a series of philosophical essays. His books generated many editions.
Raised a Presbyterian, Sok-Hon first encountered Friends through American Quaker Arthur Mitchell in Seoul just after World War Two. Later he studied at Pendle Hill and Woodbrooke. And in 1967 at the Friends World Conference at Guilford College, North Carolina, he joined the Religious Society of Friends. He had been drawn by Friends’ dedication to religious seeking and their testimony of the Inner Light. His beliefs attempted to meld Taoism and Quakerism. As Arthur Mitchell put it, though, “He was already a Quaker before he actually became one”.
Judi Dench (b. 1934) is perhaps the most accomplished English actor of the day. She has appeared onstage for over 40 years in roles such as Cleopatra, Lady Macbeth and Mother Courage, as well as in several films, like A Room with a View and Hamlet. Best-known as M in the James Bond films, in 1999 she won an Oscar for her role as Queen Elizabeth in Shakespeare in Love and a Tony for Amy’s View. Dench also received an Academy Award nomination for Mrs. Brown. Her As Time Goes By, a BBC comedy series, has been very popular.
An English Friend, Dench has stated that she feels her Quakerism is fundamental, centering and empowering her. While she says she is not good at speaking about Quaker worship, she also commented that it is something one has to work at and it is good for taking stock of oneself. She noted a similarity between her faith and her work, saying, “Quaker Meetings are entirely to do with everybody else….passing things round…. communing with other people. Theatre is live communication with other people. You’ve got to think that every night there is a whole group out there and they need to be told a story”.
Dench was educated at The Mount in York, a Quaker school, where a teacher encouraged her to become an actor. Her debut as an actor was portraying a snail in a play at The Mount. She is a patron of the Leaveners, the Young Friends acting troupe of Britain Yearly Meeting.
Taylor was a novelist and poet. Her lesbian novels, pulp fiction written during the 1950’s and 1960’s, were among the first literary expressions of that emerging culture. They included Whisper Their Love, Girls in 3-B, Strangers on Lesbos, A World World Without Men and Unlike Others. Taylor also contributed stories, reviews and criticism to the magazine The Bayou and wrote poetry like The Women Revisited.Ladder, a national lesbian magazine. A wide-ranging Bayou; and poetry like Two Women Revisited.
Taylor was a political organizer, too. Influenced by labor unions in the 1930’s, she struggled for gays and lesbians, the elderly, the poor and for non-violence. She helped found Mattachine Midwest in 1965 and the Lesbian Writer’s Conference in 1974 and was involved with the Gray Panthers.
With several children and grandchildren, she was known as everyone’s favorite lesbian grandmother.
After Taylor moved to Arizona in 1978, she became a Tucson Friend. She was active there both in the Friends Meeting and with Quaker groups.
EMILY, MY CHILD
Norman Morrison burned himself to death at the Pentagon on November 2, 1965, in protest of the Vietnam War. Emily, his daughter, accompanied him to the Pentagon. Morrison was a member of Stony Run Meeting, near Baltimore. I have written several pieces about him.
“Emily, My Child” by To Huu is a poem about the burning. Morrison speaks the lines to Emily. He also rages at President Johnson and Secretary of Defense
McNamara for the Vietnamese and American deaths. Its haunting opening:
Emily, come with me,
So when grown up you will know the way and not be lost. “Where are we going, Daddy?”
To the riverbank, the Potomac.
“What do you want me to see, Daddy?” I want you, dear, to see the Pentagon. Oh, my child, with your round eyes,
Oh, my child, with your golden hair, Ask me no questions!
Come, I will carry you.
Soon you will be home again with Mommy
To Huu (1920-2002) was a leading Vietnamese poet. A life-long revolutionary, he was a Vietnamese Communist Party Politburo member, Deputy Premier and Party Propaganda Secretary. To was also a leading candidate to succeed Premier Pham. He won the Ho Chi Minh Award, the highest award for literary and artistic accomplishments conferred by the Vietnamese.
The Vietnamese people consider Norman Morrison a national hero. Taking one’s own life in a political struggle is felt by them to be an act of conscience. They are intimately familiar with “Emily, My Child”, having been taught it in their secondary schools. When Emily and her family visited Vietnam in the late 1980’s, they idolized her.
I still must regard Morrison’s act as wrong. Though I understand the Vietnamese believe that self- immolation is an ultimate protest, I feel that life is what we must hold onto.
Signe Wilkinson (b. 1959) is an editorial cartoonist for the Philadelphia Daily News. In April, 1992, she was the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for cartooning. (Her comment: “They must be desperate to pick a cartoonist and one who communes regularly with Lucretia Mott”). Her cartoons range widely but often focus on women and children’s rights. She is also a writer, her commentary and book reviews appearing in the Philadelphia Daily News and the New York Times. She studied at the Philadelphia College of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.
Wilkinson is a member of Williston (PA) Meeting. Her editor, Rich Aregood, dubbed her his “Attack Quaker”, and she has also been called a “Quaker with a scalpel for a pen”. She is on the board of the Friends Hill Burial Ground Corporation.
She says about the Quaker influence on her as a woman: “I grew up with the basic assumption that you can do anything you want to do. Everybody is given some gift to use in life. I wish all people had that sense that their gifts are valuable, that you can work with them and trust them.”
I had been reading Signe Wilkinson’s pointed and funny ‘toons in Friends Journal, where they have also appeared for several years, and hearing about her from friends at Friends General Conference Gathering so I was delighted to discover she had won the Pulitzer Prize. (And to meet her at the 1992 FGC Gathering). Keep an eye out for her work in Friends Journal!
Modern Friends accept music. Their attitudes began to change from one of condemnation in the mid-19th century. In 1859 John Stephenson Rowntree and Thomas Hancock, in their Prize Essays, pinpointed the rejection of art, and specifically music, as one of the reasons for the great loss of membership that had occurred in the Religious Society of Friends. And this opened the floodgates.
In 1860, at Indiana Yearly Meeting, young Friends held an evening service at which over a thousand people were present. Many there publicly prayed -and sang -for the first time in their lives. By the 1870’s, with revivalism sweeping the U.S., hymn-singing and organ-playing came to be a normal part of worship, as at Ypsilanti (MI) Meeting. In Friends schools, in the 1880’s, like Saffron Walden, hymns also began to be sung, and within a decade music was included in curriculums and orchestras were organized.
In mission work in England, particularly through the efforts of the Home Mission Service and the Quaker Christian Endeavor Society, music became a vital tool for the spread of the Gospel. Pastoral Friends spread Quakerism into Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa and brought hymn-singing with them, which was in turn combined with native music. By the end of the 19th century, music had become a part of Friends’ home lives; many families had pianos, dulcimers, cellos and harmonicas, for example. The first Friends General Conference Hymnal, with 39 songs, appeared in 1919, with several editions following. And in 1925 London Yearly Meeting’s Faith and Practice finally stated Friends acceptance of music
Most moving and symbolic of those years is the story of Antoniette Sterling, a famous contralto of the late 1800’s. While at St. Martin Lane’s Meeting in London, she was moved to sing during Meeting for Worship for the first time in her life. She sang the aria from Mendelsohn’s Elijah, “0 Rest in the Lord”. Afterward, though some Friends objected, most wept at the beauty and power of her voice.
Nowadays the Religious Society of Friends resounds with music. Schools like William Penn or Earlham College have music departments. A Friends Music Camp is held every summer in Ohio. Quaker musicians grace every field: classical (Ned Rorem, Vally Weigl); folk (Joan Baez, Sarah Pirtle, Susan Stark, Patricia McKernon, Anne Zimmerman, Mary Miche’, Muriel Anderson); rhythm and blues (Bonnie Raitt); broadway (John Raitt); gospel (Free Grace Undying Love Full Gospel Quaker Choir Sing And Be Saved); jazz (Charles Roberts, Frank O’Brien); New Age (Mark Beckham- Shirey); choirs (Accapella Choir of Earlham College); singalongs (Annie Patterson and Peter Blood);and rock- and-roll (Tom Robinson, Dave Matthews).
In services, the use of music varies from FUM’s planned role to FGC’s spontaneous occurrence. In Kenya choral singing (and dancing) is an integral part of worship. Bolivian Friends also use song in their worship. Worship in Song, the FGC Hymnal, of which a new edition was assembled in 1996, is widely known, as are the FGC songbooks, like Winds of the People. Walter Felton first led songs at Friends General Conference Gatherings in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. Music (torch songs, plenary songs, rounds, gospel, shape notes, rock and roll, farewells sings) now abounds at FGC Gatherings. Silent worship is often observed after a song or record there. Friends have come to feel, as song-leader Peter Blood notes “That of God includes the creative impulse”.
Most importantly, music fills many Friends’ lives personally. I had a glorious time at Sally Campbell and Lynn Newsome’s songwriting workshop at the 1994 FGC Gathering, and I remember a joyful “Nightingales” gathering at Northern Yearly Meeting in the mid-1980’s. At Evanston (Il) Meeting Friends would call for a hymn, someone would go to the piano, and we would sing (or not) as we felt led. They could be powerful moments.
A great day for Friends had come at last.
James Dean (1931-1955), the actor, was raised in a Quaker atmosphere. When he was nine, his mother died, so he moved in with Marcus and Ortense Winslow, his aunt and uncle. The Winslows lived in Fairmount, Indiana, which was settled by Quakers, and were members of Back Creek Friends Church. Dean attended the Friends Church and appeared there in church plays. He also played on the “The Fighting Quakers”, his High School basketball team. Moreover, the Winslows, strong, kind people, appear to have brought him up with Friendly ways. (Perhaps the silences in his performances had some roots there). His uncle was quoted as saying, “Jimmy was more religious than people knew” and mentioned a tree where Dean would retreat to sit in quietly. Once a year there is a James Dean remembrance at Back Creek Friends Church.
Dean made three films during his brief career: East of Eden; Rebel Without a Cause; and Giant. He also made several TV shows. Among them was Harvest, in which he played a Midwestern Quaker boy longing to leave the farm.
Yes, Quakers invented Monopoly.
In 1901 Elizabeth Magie, a Virginia Quaker, received a patent for The Landlord’s Game. She was a devoted follower of Henry George, an economist who believed that society’s ills arose from a few people owning most of the land and that the solution to this was a tax to discourage it. To illustrate his theory she created a board game containing properties for rent.
The Landlord’s Game circulated across the country for over 25 years as a sort of underground phenomenon. Players developed the game by offering the properties for purchase, too, and by adding a Community Chest. They painted their boards on oil cloth, renamed the properties with local streets and used personal objects for markers. Gradually they came to call it Auction Monopoly or just Monopoly. It was a point of honor not to commercialize it.
In 1931 Ruth Hoskins, a Quaker teaching at the Atlantic City Friends school, learned Monopoly from some Indianapolis acquaintances. She and Charles Todd and Jesse and Ruth Raiford, other local Friends, tagged the properties “Marven Gardens” (the original spelling), “Boardwalk”, “Park Place”, etc. After Charles Darrow, a visitor from New York City, saw the game through mutual friends, he copied it and began to sell it. Parker Brothers bought the rights from Darrow in 1935 and claimed he had invented it.
In 1971 Ralph Anspach, a Professor of Economics from San Francisco State, created the Anti-Monopoly game, independently reviving Magie’s original intent. When Parker Brothers sued him for patent infringement, he investigated Monopoly’s history and discovered its Quaker roots. Parker Brothers lost the case in the U.S. Supreme Court, whereupon some of the original Quaker inventors became shareholders in the Anti-Monopoly game.
BOLIVIAN QUAKER MUSIC
Bolivian Friends are known for their joyous, jaunty music.
Quakers there play the lilting, rhythmic music of their country. They sing in Aymaran and Spanish and use panpipes, flutes, drums, mandolins, shells, fiddles and guitars. (Simon and Garfunkel’s “El Condor Pasa” was Bolivian, and the Lambada craze was inspired by the popular Los K’jarka group). In their church services Bolivian Friends play a mixture of indigenous music and Protestant hymns. Younger Friends are seeking to use more Bolivian music during worship. North American Quakers visitors have been greeted by Friends there standing outside their churches, singing, and then requesting that their visitors sing to them.
Friends in Bolivia are comprised of about 40,000 Aymaran Indians in twelve Yearly Meetings. They are mostly farmers with a few middle-class professionals. Friends there trace their roots to the work of missionaries from Northwest and Central Yearly Meetings in the 1920’s. Their schools were founded -in secret because it was illegal then to teach Indians to read and write -in the 1930’s. Because of their testimony for peace, Bolivian Friends suffered during the Chaco War and, because of the testimony for equality, they immediately began ordaining women ministers. (Both beliefs were rather remarkable in such a macho culture).
Nowadays Iglesia Santidad de los Amigos (Santidad), Iglesia Nacional Evangelica de los Amigos (INELA) and Amigos Central, all evangelical, are the largest Yearly Meetings. A few INELA Friends in La Paz and Cochamba worship silently. Lately a Comite` de Servicio Cuaquero en Bolivio, modeled on the American Friends Service Committee, has been established, and Alternatives to Violence Project is also active there.
Bolivian Friends live Quaker ideals in extreme poverty, racism and violence. (Bolivia is the poorest country in South America, and Indians there have always been brutalized). These Friends are lions for their faith.
A quote from one of their songs:
“One more day in the hands of God, one more day in the hands of God, I want to wake up singing, I want to wake up praying, I want to wake up singing and praising my Lord, I want to wake up singing and praising my Lord. Sadness may come as evening falls, but happiness comes, it comes in the morning, but happiness comes, it comes in the morning.”
KENYAN QUAKER CHRISTMAS MURALS
Kenyan Quaker women are famed for the Christmas murals they paint on the outside of their houses. They call this art “maridad ya inzuî ” or “decoration of houses.” A day or two before the holiday, they begin painting over a layer of white clay on the front and sometimes the sides of their homes, using brilliant colors and easily recognized designs. Pigments come from clay, leaves, bananas, charcoal and bricks. Topics commonly depicted include triangles, flowers, scenes of people or vehicles, dots, handprints and stripes. They can be painted either randomly or in rows, in a flat, hard-edged style, using hands, twigs or rags. Ideas for the murals sometimes arise from dreams. A saying is always used, such as ‘Merry Christmas’ or ‘Welcome.’ Within a few months rain and wind dissolve the painting.
The traditional practice of body painting was forbidden by missionaries when Kenyans converted to Quakerism and instead encouraged them to take up mural painting. The Kenyan Friends have come look upon this art as an expression of their Christian commitment and as a great joy. Talented mural painters are looked up to in the community. While Quaker women have been the artists, young people are now being asked to take this over. The painting has spread widely to other areas.
Kenyan Quakers began through a mission of Cleveland Friends Meeting in 1902. They are located in western Kenya with Kaimosi as their center. With about 133,000 members, in 14 Yearly Meetings, they are the largest body of Quakers in the world. They come mainly from the Luhya people, who are farmers. Kenyan Friends are now self-governing and, in fact, have spread Quakerism to neighboring countries, particularly Uganda. During the violence in Kenya in 2007 , they were peacemakers, among other things, organizing a Quaker Peace Conference as well as hiding the persecuted.
(Please note: the mural above is from western Kenya but is not necessarily Quaker since, as noted above, the practice has spread to other areas).
POPEYE THE QUAKER MAN
Popeye the Quaker Man was an advertising campaign concocted by the Quaker Oats Company and King Features Syndicate in 1989. Instant Quaker Oats Presents the Fight of the Century: Popeye the Quaker Man Vs. Bluto the Bad!, a pamphlet of cartoons, was one of their ads. In it, Bluto hides a horseshoe in his glove and levels Popeye. Popeye rejects spinach, croaking “Can the spinach! I wants me Instant Quaker Oatmeal!” After he gobbles up his oatmeal, he knocks out Bluto. Wimpy, another character, holds up Popeye’s hand and declares, “The winner and still champion …. Popeye the Quaker Man!” As everyone cheers, Popeye sings, ‘I eats me oatmeal an’ I’m stronger than steel. I’m Popeye the Quaker Man!” His parrot, perched on a shoulder, squawks “Popeye wants a Quaker!”
Friends across the country took exception to the Popeye the Quaker Man campaign. They did not like the depiction of Quakers, however unlikely, as assaulting people. They contacted Quaker Oats in great numbers.
Embarrassed, the company withdrew the campaign and issued an apology.
A record I have listened to with delight is Crash, a Dave Matthews Band CD.
Dave Matthews (b. 1967) is one of the most popular contemporary rock-and-rollers. He plays guitar uniquely, treating it as a percussion as well as a stringed instrument. His very personal lyrics about relationships, politics and death fuel the lyrics. Matthews has lived a nomadic life: born in Johannesburg, South Africa; raised there, Cambridge, England, and Yorktown Heights, New York; and now lives in Charlottesville, Virginia. Alongside his music, he has acted and drawn.
The Dave Matthews Band (also known as DMB) plays a quirky blend of rock-and-roll, jazz, rhythm and blues, avant-garde and township music. Unusually for a band, it features an acoustic lead guitar. It is an ensemble, though named for Matthews. Dave Matthews was raised a Friend in Johannesburg and Yorktown Heights. (He left South Africa to avoid compulsory military service due to his politics and Quakerism). He attended Oakwood Friends School. While he does not consider himself a religious person, spiritual themes recur in his work and Friends beliefs have informed his life.
“We were brought up, very aggressively, that bigotry and racism were evil things and they stemmed from fear.” And: “(I) admire their (Quaker) ideals, that everyone has a drop of God and a drop of evil and everyone has an equal amount of God in them, and these sorts of ideas, and that violence is never a solution. These sorts of ideas stuck with me….”
A special delight of the Lemonade Gallery at the 2005 FGC Gathering was Kindred Gottlieb’s Shadow Drawings: wire mesh sculptures of human figures through which lights shone that cast checkered shadows of the figures on the cloths beneath them.
Kindred is an artist who creates in a great variety of mediums, including sculpture, drawing, video, dance, puppets, theater and writing. Avant-garde in execution, her art is a mixture of humor and gravity. She is especially drawn to explorations of the soul and of borders, and in the past her work has focused on a return from grief. Kindred studied at Amherst College, Mount Holyoke College, the New York City Studio School for Drawing, and the Berlin University of Art, among other schools. She received a grant from the Lemelson Foundation, and her pieces have been exhibited in Los Angeles, New York City and Berlin. She has also worked as a lighting designer and theater technician.
Once a member of Los Angeles Meeting and now at Stockridge Meeting in California, Kindred has been very active with Friends. She also worked on a documentary history of American Quakerism with her mother for their Plain Speech video company. Incorporating a spiritual dimension to her art is vital to her.
Kindred’s Shadow Drawings (Hindsight; Becoming an Angel; Leap Of Faith) are extraordinary. At first sight powerful, they are also remarkable for their reflection of her Quakerism. Their blend of shadow and light are very Friendly.
Kindred Gottlieb’s website is at www.kindredgottlieb.com. I urge you to experience her work!
Jessamyn West (1902-1985) was one of the better-known Quaker artists. She was raised in California, where she taught school. At the age of 29 West contracted tuberculosis, which in those days usually proved fatal. Grace West, her mother, nursed her back to health, and to while away the time, told her stories about Grace’s own Indiana Quaker background. After West regained her health, she turned to writing those stories down. In 1945 they became her first book Friendly Persuasion.
West went on to write novels, short stories, poems, autobiographies, librettos and film scripts. Her strictly Quaker work consists of the two novels Friendly Persuasion and its sequel Except of Me and Thee and an anthology called A Quaker Reader. Her other books, such as Cress Delahanty, were set in California’s pioneer days. They were brutally honest about topics like cancer, rape and murder but were balanced by a delicate lyrical prose. The people in them, after honest struggle, usually triumphed in some manner, however unexpected.
Ann Martyn is an accomplished painter, mainly of watercolors. Her subjects include fruits, flowers, portraits and landscapes. After completing a doctorate in marriage and family therapy at Virginia Tech in 1990, needing a change of pace, Ann began drawing with pentels. Her art flourished when she moved to Ireland a few years later and decided she wanted to paint the intense colors of the countryside there. Coming back to the United States, she set up a studio in her house to continue her work. She also taught others, particularly children. Her work has been featured in exhibitions at WVTF-FM, Gallery Francaise and Mojo’s Café. She finds that her painting helps her observe things more closely and thus become deeper and extra beautiful. This, in turn, has helped her become more grateful.
Ann began attending Quaker Meeting about the same time she started painting. At first, with her husband Frank O’Brien, she attended Roanoke (VA) Meeting, then shifted to Floyd (VA) Meeting. Later she worshiped with Cork (Ireland) Friends, returning to Roanoke Meeting in the mid-2000’s. She found Friends worship soothing and nourishing, especially in view of the stress of her work as a therapist. In 2009, however, she left Friends for other spiritual paths.
I was charmed by Ann’s work. Her Meeting for Worship, based on Roanoke Meeting, is intimate and warm. Color Play is a gorgeous sketch of brushes and a box of paints. Her many landscapes are reminiscent of Winslow Homer. Quiet, delightful work!
QUAKER ARTISTS TABLE OF CONTENTS
Quaker History and Beliefs
History of Quaker Art
|Edward Burrough and Thomas Stubbs||3|
|Penn Wampum Belt||11|
|Merrily Danced the Quaker’s Wife||11|
|A Quaker Funeral||13|
|A Quakers Meeting||14|
|Uncle Tom’s Cabin||26|
|To A Beautiful Quaker||26|
|The Gentle Boy||31|
|The Fair Quaker and the Sincere Quaker||34|
|John Greenleaf Whittier||35|
|Quaker Martyrs Monument||37|
|Abraham Darby II||40|
|White Hart Court Meetinghouse||40|
|Sarah and Angelia Grimke’||42|
|James Fenimore Cooper||47|
|Ralph Waldo Emerson||47|
|Charles Brocken Brown||48|
|Verses Made in England||51|
|An Alleged Portrait of John Woolman||51|
|Hannah Whitall Smith||54|
|Abolitionist Emblem and Print||64|
|James Doyle Penrose||66|
|William Penn Statue||69|
|The Quakers: A Tale||70|
|The Living Remnant and other Tales||71|
|William and Mary Howitt||72|
|Rebecca Scattergood Savery||73|
|Scissors and Letter-opener||78|
|The Angel and the Badman||84|
|All the Quaker are Shoulder Shakers||85|
|William Bacon Evans||90|
|Nancy Ekholm Burkert||96|
|Dorothy Hopkirk Ackerman||98|
|Emily, My Child||99|
|Norman Morrison (Hess)||100|
|Quaker 1652 Country Game||102|
|Helen Morgan Brooks||105|
|The Winds of Autumn||107|
|Sara and Kamila Nasr||111|
|The Quaker Graveyard at Nantucket||113|
|Sword of Peace||116|
|Janet Payne Whitney||122|
|John Greenleaf Whittier, Fighting Quaker||131|
|Benjamin West and his Cat Grimalkin||135|
|The Deep Six||136|
|The Quaker Youth Ensemble||138|
|Bolivian Quaker Music||139|
|Seek My Face||141|
|Six Feet Under||143|
|Kenyan Quaker Christmas Murals||145|
|“Thee I Love”||147|
|The Prince and the Quakeress||147|
|Jan de Hartog||148|
|Friendly Gangstaz Committee||152|
|The Quaker Girl||155|
|Annie Patterson and Peter Blood||161|
|F. Murray Abraham||162|
|US and Fire||163|
|Dorothy Canfield Fisher||167|
|Quaker Oats Man||171|
|Popeye the Quaker Man||172|
|Benjamin, the Meetinghouse Mouse||173|
|Quaker Temporary Tattoo||174|
|Norman Morrison Stamp||180|
|Norman Morrison (Ferguson)||185|
|E. Merrill Root||186|
|Law and Order||187|
|Karen Smith and Paul Buckley||188|
|Elizabeth Gray Vining||189|
|In Good King Charles’ Golden Days||190|
|My Lai Sculpture||191|
|The Iron Bridge||193|
|Ramallah Friends School Music Program||194|
|Quaker Stained Glass||197|
|Elfrida Vipont Foulds||199|
|Miss Whittier Makes a List||199|
|The Memory Bucket||202|
|Inside the Quaker Meeting||212|
|Sylvia Shaw Judson||216|
|Information on Friends||219|
|Bookstores, Publishers, Magazines & Libraries||250|